The Rise of the Indian Rupee 0 624

  • India’s economy will overtake the US by 2030. And will be the world’s youngest major economy.
  • In just 12 years, India will undergo a startling transformation…
  • By 2030, around 77% of Indians will be under the age of 44… and most of those will be under 25. The country will also have more than 1 billion internet users…
  • Every second, three or more Indians go online for the first time. And by 2030 India will be a middle-class Nation. Consumer spending will quadruple. Rising to nearly $5.7 trillion in 2030.
  • But the economy still faces major challenges. By 2022, more than half of Indian workers will need reskilling. And it still has some of the most polluted cities in the world.
  • India will need to ensure its fast-growing economy is inclusive.

Asian giants securely heading to overtake America

A new world economic order is in the making, with today’s emerging markets, including India, at the heart of it.

India is likely to become the world’s second-largest economy by 2030, next only to China and overtaking the US, according to Standard Charted Bank’s long-term forecast released on January 2008. The UK-based multinational bank also predicts that based on nominal GDP using purchasing power parity exchange rates, China will overtake the US by 2020.

Top 10 countries by nominal GDP in 2020.

Current emerging markets will likely make up the majority of the biggest economies by 2030.

Standard Chartered Bank had raised growth forecast for China and India from its projections in 2013. “India will likely be the main mover, with its trend growth accelerating to 7.8% by the 2020s partly due to ongoing reforms, including the introduction of a National Goods and Services Tax (GST) and the Indian bankruptcy code (IBC),” says the report.

Launched in 2017, the GST attempts to simplify India’s cumbersome tax regime, while the IBC, rolled out in 2016 would strengthen the country’s bankruptcy and insolvency laws.

“Our long-term growth forecasts are underpinned by one key principle: countries’ share of world GDP should eventually coverage with their share of the world’s population, driven by the convergence of per-capita GDP between advanced and emerging economies,” the report said.

Jobs, jobs, jobs

Aging populations are likely to weight on global growth, but India, home to the world’s largest group of young people, will remain unfazed, Standard Chartered Bank notes. Half of the country’s population is under the age of 25.

The bank expects “the rising aspirations of a young population to continue to support consumerism in India’s economy.”

But a young demographic also creates a demand for massive employment. About 100 million new jobs must be created in the manufacturing and services sector by 2030, according to the report. To achieve this, it says, the government needs to close a widening skills gap, raise the participation of women in the workforce, and ease labor laws.

“India needs to train circa 10 million people annually, but currently has the capacity to train just 4.5 million,” the report says.

It also calls for reform to boost spending on infrastructure and reduce growing economic inequality in the country.

Are you optimistic for India’s future?

By : Cameron Blake

Source:  Standard Chartered; Based on predicted nominal GDP

 

 

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Moody’s Credit Rating 0 1521

By : Kenneth De Zilwa

Moody’s Credit Rating Agency on the 23rd of November 2018 announced that they have downgraded Sri Lanka’s sovereign credit by one notch from B1 to B2. Many political statements have been made of this downgrade.Let us examine what it really means to Sri Lanka.

Table-1-Credit rating range From Aaa to Ca

Moodys Credit Rating - 01

Source: Econsult & moody’s

Each country is rated based on their governments likelihood to default on their external borrowing obligations.  The credit rating therefore looks at the default probability  of the state. In doing so Credit rating agencies take into account GDP growth, per capita growth, monetary conditions, fiscal deficits, external debt burden and a host of other quantitative and qualitative data in arriving at the credit rating political risk is also one such variable.

Moody’s have an established rating score which is Aaa which indicated the highest quality of credit  with a  probability of default of 0.03 percent while speculative grading’s are from Ba1- Ba3 with a probability of default 2.60 percent.  The lowest credit score is classified as High risk or Highly  Speculative obligations which are rated by Moody’s as B1, B2 and B3 (probability of default 9.58 percent).  With the lowest and most riskiest being Carated sovereign credits (two year default probability of 35.9 percent).

Sri Lanka Credit Rating B1 to B2

In this regard Sri Lanka was already rated as a high speculative country B1 (stable) since July 2013 and later the rating  outlook downgraded from stable to negative rating reaffirmed in 2016, 2017 and 2018 . Therefore Sri Lanka  a B1 credit was below investment grade to begin with the outlook changing from ‘stable’ in 2013 to ‘negative’ from June 2016. (Source: countryeconomy.com).  The corrective action plan could have reversed this outcome; however, the trajectory was unadjusted.

Moody’s appears to place a higher weight on GDP growth, inflation, growth in per capita income in order to achieve a higher grade rating, while lower inflation and lower external debt also consistently relate to higher ratings.

Therefore the overall credit rating of Sri Lanka in terms of its high risk rating has become more pronounced as the external debt and external foreign reserves situation has decreased since 2014 with warnings not heeded by persons responsible for managing the external debt. Added to this our external Foreign exchange reserves too has continued to decline and has declined by 30pct from USD 9.9 billion in April  2018 to 7.0 billion as at November 2018

Chart-1-External Debt Maturities

Source: Econsult & moody’s

Putting the Impact into perspective

The credit rating impact thus must be seen as a testimony of the shift in the economic model which has seen a shift to consumption demand which is supplied by external sources, thus this has lead to the trade deficit widen to USD 14 billion. Non-consumer import  demand during the past three year have witnessed an increase by 47pct growing from  USD 1,700 million to  USD 2,500 million over the period 2012-2014, 2015-2017 With the rupee depreciation rapidly to stem the imbalance in the overall current account.

Therefore the reason for the downgrade is three fold a) Sri Lanka’s growing debt to GDP ratio which had increased from 71% of GDP in 2014 to 85% of GDP as at 2018 June and b) its deteriorating external finances and c) the deterioration in GDP growth from 9% in 2012 to 3.1% in 2017 and also a stagnant per capital growth over the past 3 years.

Internal

Chart-2-All Share Index and USD/LKR price behavior


Source: Reuters

In fact the financial markets had already factored the credit downgrade of Sri Lanka since June this year  (Chart-3) as depicted in the Colombo Stock Exchange All Share Index breaking the 6000 mark (Yellow line) and the flight of foreign bond holders from the government debt securities market which resulted in the Rupee depreciating by 15% on year to date basis  (Purple line) therefore it is not professionally correct to underpin the downgrade to the last two weeks of political swings

External

Chart-3- Sri Lanka Sovereign Bond secondary market behavior

Source: Econsult & moody’s

The deterioration in the country’s external finances also had a significant bearing the ability raise finance as the 2025 USD Bond with a coupon of 6.875pct witnessed a sell off in the secondary market. The sell off of the Sovereign bond (ISIN 85227SAQ9) was witnessed since January 2018 but exacerbated during the past one month, reaching a yield of 9.04pct

This negative sentiment has thus prevented Sri Lanka tapping the Euro bond markets for refinancing its external maturities. This can pose a short term stress condition.

While it also provides Sri Lankan risk takers with the opportunity to buy the Sri Lanka credit at a discounted value, and factor in high yields as part of their investment portfolios

Sri Lanka in a Transforming South Asian Economic Landscape (Data as at 2018) 0 852

SL in Transform

 

  • India remains the Global leader and among the fastest growing economies of the world with a population of 1,316 Mn and USD 2,689 Mn.
  • Bangladesh with 162 Mn people with a GDP of USD 286 Bn has also sustained high economic growth in recent times.
  • Pakistan With a population of 199 Mn people and economy of USD 306.0 Bn GDP has slowed down its growth momentum, but remains a potentially important player in the region.
  • Nepal with a population of 29 Mn and an economy of USD 28 Bn sustains 6 percent growth in GDP in its transition to a lower middle income country.
  • Bhutan and Maldives with smaller in terms of population as well as GDP sustain near 7 percent growth in their respective GDP. Maldives commands the highest per capita income status in South Asia  while Bhutan commands one of the happiest country in the world,
  • Sri Lanka with 21 Mn people and a GDP of USD 92 Bn have lost its growth momentum and its development drive in recent years although it is still commanding the highest per capita income of around USD 4,000 in South Asia next only to Maldives.
  • Afghanistan with 30 Mn population remains as one of the poorest economies in the world with 2.5 percent growth in GDP and South Asia.   

 

Source : IMF – World Economic Outlook 2018 and Country Economic Updates
Source : IMF – World Economic Outlook 2018 and Country Economic Updates

By: BiZnomics Special Economic Correspondent