By: Chantal D.
Agriculture is the backbone of most of the developing countries in which a major part of their income comes from agriculture sector and more than half of their population depends on it for their livelihood. The current global population is nearly 7.7 billion with 50% living in Asia. A large proportion of those livings in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of environmental impacts or political instability, while in the developed world there is a food surplus. For developing countries, the drive is to develop drought and pest-resistant crops which also maximize yield. In developed countries, the food industry is driven by consumer demand which is currently for the fresher and healthier food products.
Specifically in agriculture, technical innovation is of importance with regard to addressing global challenges such s population growth, climate change and the limited availability of important plant nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium.
Nanotechnology has gained intense attention in the recent years due to its wide applications in several areas like medicine, medical drugs, catalysis, energy and materials. Those nanoparticles with small size to the large surface area (1-100nm) have several potential functions. These days, sustainable agriculture is needed. The development of nonchemical has appeared as promising agents for the plant growth, fertilizers and pesticides. In recent years, the use of Nano materials’ has been considered as the alternative solution to control pant pests including insects, fungi and weeds.
Despite these potential advantages, the agricultural sector is still comparably marginal and has not yet made it to the market to any larger extent in comparison with other sectors of nanotechnology application.
Nanotechnology helps agricultural sciences and reduce environmental pollution of pesticides and chemical fertilizers by using the nano particles and nano capsules with the ability control or delayed delivery, absorption and more effective and environmentally friendly and production of nano -crystals to increase the efficiency of pesticides for application of pesticides with lower dose.
In the agricultural sector, nanotech research and development is likely to facilitate and frame the next stage of development of genetically modified crops, animal products inputs, chemical pesticides and precision farming techniques. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture has been mostly theoretical but it has begun and will continue to have a significant effect in the main areas of the food industry development of new functional materials, product development and design of methods and instrumentation for food safety and bio-security.